|Coffee Facts and Information||
Coffee is a widely consumed beverage prepared from the roasted seeds
commonly called "beans" of the
coffee plant. Coffee was first consumed as early
as the 9th century, when it
appeared in the highlands of Ethiopia. From Ethiopia, it spread to Egypt and
Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern
Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of
Europe and the Americas. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages
The two most commonly grown species of the coffee plant are Coffea canephora and C. arabica, which are cultivated in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Arabica coffee is by far the most popular variety because of it's smooth taste and aromatic qualities. Basically coffee berries are picked, processed (flesh removed from around the coffee beans), and then they're dried (more of that process below). The seeds are then roasted at temperatures around 200°C (392°F), during which the sugars in the bean caramelize, the bean changes color, and the true flavor of that delicious drink we call coffee develops. The beans are generally roasted to a light, medium, or a dark brown color, depending on the desired flavor. The roasted beans are ground and brewed in order to create that beverage we call coffee! That's the basic run down, now for the rest of the coffee story...
Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. In the 17th century, it was banned in Ottoman Turkey. In Europe, it was once associated with rebellious political activities. Today, trade in coffee has a large economic value. Coffee is one of the world's more important primary commodities; in 2003, coffee was the world's sixth-largest legal agricultural export in value. From 1998 to 2000, 6.7 million tons of coffee were produced annually, and it is predicted that by 2010 production will rise to 7 million tons annually. Among coffee drinkers the average coffee consumption in the United States is 3.1 cups of coffee per day.
The health effects of coffee are disputed, and many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. Studies have suggested that the consumption of coffee lowers the risk of certain diseases but may have negative effects as well, especially when excessive. The health effects of coffee are disputed, and many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions. Studies have suggested that the consumption of coffee lowers the risk of certain diseases but may have negative effects as well, especially when excessive.
Heritage Dictionary defines coffee as any of variou tropical African shrubs
or trees of the genus Coffea, especially C. arabica, widely cultivated in
the tropics for their seeds that are dried, roasted, and ground to prepare a
stimulating aromatic drink. The beanlike seeds of this plant, enclosed
within a pulpy fruit. The beverage prepared from the seeds of this plant.
A moderate brown to dark brown or dark grayish brown. An informal social gathering at which coffee and other refreshments are served. According to Webster's Dictionary coffee is, 'The beans and cherries of the coffee tree, whether parchment, green or roasted, and includes ground, decaffeinated, liquid and soluble coffee.' It goes on to say, 'Coffee is a tree of genus Coffea, its seeds, and a stimulating beverage prepared from those seeds. Coffee is widely cultivated in tropical countries in plantations for export to temperate countries. Coffee ranks as one of the world's major commodity crops and is a major export of some countries.
It is estimated that coffee originated in an Ethiopian province called Kaffa. But, there is controversy about where it originated. Coffee first became trendy in Arabia during the 13th century. Coffee trees were grown in India sometime after 1600, and some around 1650 coffee was imported in to England and coffee houses opened in London and Oxford.
Coffee was popular by the 18th century in Europe and European colonists introduced the crop to other tropical countries to help them supply a healthy domestic demand. The demand for coffee was so strong in the 19th century that when authentic coffee beans were limited, people developed substitutes from vegetables like, chicory root, acorns and figs.
The history of coffee can be traced to at least
as early as the 9th century, when it appeared in the highlands of Ethiopia.
According to legend, shepherds were the first to observe the influence of
the caffeine in coffee beans when, after their goats consumed some wild
coffee berries in the pasture, the goats appeared to "dance" and have an
increased level of energy. From Ethiopia, coffee spread to Egypt and Yemen,
and by the fifteenth century had reached Persia, Turkey, and northern
In 1583, Leonhard Rauwolf, a German physician, after returning from a ten-year trip to the Near East, gave this description of coffee:
“ A beverage as black as ink, useful against numerous illnesses, particularly those of the stomach. Its consumers take it in the morning, quite frankly, in a porcelain cup that is passed around and from which each one drinks a cupful. It is composed of water & the fruit from a bush called bunnu. ”
Coffee received a major boost in popularity
of Islam, a religion which outlawed alcohol but adopted coffee as an
acceptable drink. It was even called qahwa which is the old Arab word for
wine; from which the name "coffee" is thought
to derive. Initially coffee was mainly drank by Arab Sufi monks, but by the
fifteenth century it was being consumed by everybody throughout the Islamic
world in ubiquitous coffee houses that were called kaveh kanes.
The Arabian monopoly on coffee was broken by a Muslim pilgrim from India named Baba Budan. Sometime around the year 1650, the legend has it that Baba smuggled seven coffee seeds strapped to his body out of Mecca. These special coffee seeds were then planted near the city of Chickmaglur in southern India... these Arabian coffee trees are parents of most coffee trees in the world today. This region of India today still produces quality coffee beans from the original ancient Arabian coffee seeds.
The first European coffee house opened in Italy in the year 1645. The Dutch were the first to import coffee and coffee beans on a large scale, and they eventually smuggled coffee seedlings into Europe in 1690, defying the Arab prohibition on the exportation of coffee plants or unroasted coffee seeds.
Through the efforts of the British East India Company, coffee became popular in England as well. It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland following the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. When coffee reached the Thirteen Colonies, it was initially not as successful as it had been in Europe. However, during the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to hoard their scarce supplies and raise prices dramatically; this was partly due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants. After the War of 1812, during which Britain had temporarily cut off access to tea imports, the Americans' taste for coffee grew, and high demand during the American Civil War together with advances in brewing technology secured the position of coffee as an everyday commodity in the United States. The major coffee-producing regions today are South America, Vietnam, Cote d'Ivore and Kenya.
ingestion on average is about a third that of tap water in most of North
America and Europe. In total, 6.7 million metric tons of coffee were
produced annually in 1998–2000, and the forecast is a rise to 7 million
metric tons annually by 2010.
Brazil remains the largest coffee exporting nation, but in recent years Vietnam has become a major producer of robusta beans. Robusta coffees, traded in London at much lower prices than New York's arabica, are preferred by large industrial clients, such as multinational roasters and instant coffee producers, because of the lower cost. Four single roaster companies buy more than 50% of all of the annual production: Kraft, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee. The preference of the "Big Four" coffee companies for cheap robusta is believed by many to have been a major contributing factor to the crash in coffee prices, and the demand for high-quality arabica beans is only slowly recovering. Many experts believe the giant influx of cheap green coffee after the collapse of the International Coffee Agreement of 1975–1989 led to the prolonged price crisis from 1989 to 2004. In 1997 the price of coffee in New York broke US$3.00/lb, but by late 2001 it had fallen to US$0.43/lb.
The Dutch certification system "Max Havelaar" started the concept of fair trade labeling, which guarantees coffee growers a negotiated pre-harvest price. In 2005, 39,756 metric tons out of 8,457,000 produced worldwide were fair trade; in 2007, 62,382 metric tons out of 9,183,000 were fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%. A number of studies have shown that fair trade coffee has a positive impact on the communities which grow it. A study in 2002 found that fair trade strengthened producer organizations, improved returns to small producers, and positively affected their quality of life and the health of the organizations that represent. A 2005 study concluded that fair trade has "greatly improved the well-being of small-scale coffee farmers and their families" by providing access to credit and external development funding and greater access to training, giving them the ability to improve the quality of their coffee. The families of fair trade producers were also more stable than those who were not involved in fair trade, and their children had better access to education. A 2006 study of Bolivian coffee producers concluded that Fair-trade certification has had a positive impact on local coffee prices, economically benefiting all coffee producers, Fair-trade certified or not. Fair trade also strengthened producer organizations and increased their political influence.
The Coffea plant belongs to a genus of ten species of flowering plants of the family Rubiaceae. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that may grow 5 meters (16.40 ft) tall when unpruned. The leaves are dark green and glossy, usually 10–15 centimeters (3.9–1.9 in) long and 6.0 centimeters (2.4 in) wide. It produces clusters of fragrant, white flowers that bloom simultaneously. The fruit berry is oval, about 1.5 centimeters (0.6 in) long, and green when immature, but ripens to yellow, then crimson, becoming black on drying. Each berry usually contains two seeds, but in 5–10 per cent of the berries, there is only one; these are peaberries. Berries ripen in 7–9 months. The coffee plant is native to subtropical Africa and southern Asia. There are two main species of coffee that are cultivated today, they both come from the Rubiaceae family. Coffea arabica, which is also known as Arabica coffee, makes up 75-80% of the world's production. Coffea canephora, also known Robusta coffee, is not as popular because of its substandard taste.
Coffee is usually propagated by seed. The traditional method of planting coffee is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the rainy season; half are eliminated naturally. Coffee is often intercropped with food crops, such as corn, beans, or rice, during the first few years.
two main cultivated species of the coffee plant, Coffea canephora and Coffea
arabica. Arabica coffee (from C. arabica) is considered more suitable
for drinking than robusta (from C. canephora), which, compared to arabica,
tends to be bitter and
have less flavor. For this reason, about three fourths of coffee cultivated
is C. arabica. However, C. canephora is less susceptible to disease than C.
arabica and can be cultivated in environments where C. arabica will not
thrive. Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50% more caffeine than arabica.
For this reason it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many
commercial coffee blends. Good quality robustas are used in some espresso
blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost. Other
species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be
indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan respectively.
Most Arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, East Africa/Arabia, or Asia/Pacific. Robusta coffee beans are grown in West and Central Africa, throughout Southeast Asia and to some extent in Brazil. Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing.
Some are concerned about perceived ecological issues with coffee cultivation. Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees, which provided habitat for many animals and insects. Sun cultivation requires the clearing of trees and increased use of fertilizer and pesticides. Opponents of sun cultivation say environmental problems such as deforestation, pesticide pollution, habitat destruction, and soil and water degradation are the side effects of these practices. The American Birding Association has led a campaign for "shade-grown" and organic coffees, which is says are sustainably harvested. While certain types of shaded coffee cultivation systems show greater biodiversity than full-sun systems, they still compare poorly to native forest in terms of habitat value, and some researchers are concerned that the push for "shade grown" coffee may actually be encouraging deforestation in ecologically sensitive regions.
berries and their seeds undergo multi-step processing before they become the
roasted coffee with which most Western consumers are familiar. First,
berries are picked, generally by hand. Then, the flesh of the berry is
removed, usually by machine, and the seeds are fermented to remove the slimy
layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is
finished the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove
the fermentation residue, generating massive amounts of highly polluted
coffee wastewater. Finally the seeds are dried and sorted. The seeds are
then labeled green coffee beans.
The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted state, and all coffee is roasted before being consumed. Coffee can be sold roasted by the supplier or it can be home roasted. The roasting process has a considerable degree of influence on the taste of the final product, creating the distinctive flavor of coffee from a bland bean, by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically.
Physically, the bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost, but increases in volume, causing the bean to become less dense. When bean temperature reaches 200°C (392°F), the actual roasting begins. Different varieties and ages of beans differ in density and moisture content, causing them to roast at different rates. The density of the bean is important because it influences the strength of the coffee and requirements for packaging it.
During roasting, caramelization occurs as the intense heat breaks down starches in the bean, changing them to to simple sugars which begin to brown, adding color to the bean. Sucrose is lost rapidly during the roasting process; in darker roasts, it may disappear entirely. As the bean roasts, aromatic oils, acids and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor. When the internal temperature of the bean reaches 205°C (400°F), other oils will start to develop. One of these oils is caffeol, created at about 200°C (392°F), which is largely responsible for coffee's aroma and flavor.
Grades of coffee roasting are unroasted (or "green"), light, cinnamon, medium, high, city, full city, French and Italian. Depending on the color of the roasted beans, they will be labeled as light, cinnamon, medium, high, city, full city, French or Italian roast. Darker roasts are generally smoother, because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine, resulting in a slight bitterness, and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids which are destroyed by longer roasting times.
A small amount of chaff is produced during roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. Chaff is usually removed from the beans by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the beans. Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold to the pharmaceutical industry.
Here's how to make the perfect cup of coffee...
Coffee Tip #1- Make sure your coffee pot is clean.
A clean coffee pot is essential and will make a world of difference in how your coffee ultimately tastes. An unclean coffee pot has residual coffee oils that remain from the previous batches of coffee. There are also other coffee chemicals and materials such as pieces of coffee grounds which can decompose and cause some bad flavors. It's not likely such small amounts will make you sick, but there's a good chance your coffee will taste "a little off".
Be careful about using a whole lot of soap unless you're sure to remove any remaining residue, following a good wash and rinse with some baking soda and water to neutralize any remaining acids and coffee oil.
Coffee Tip #2 - Clean Filtered Water
Remember that coffee is really 99% water, so you want o make sure that 99% is the best that you can make it. While using tap water isn't a bad thing, the numerous chemicals added to tap water by your local water company can dramatically change the taste of your coffee. Using bottled water is great since it's free of chlorine, however if that seems a little on the extravagant side for you then getting one of those filters that attach to your kitchen faucet works well. Since you'll likely use it mainly for making your coffee, the filter will last much longer then normal.
Another recommendation to ensure a clean, fresh, pure coffee taste is to use either a stainless steel or gold mesh filter instead of the usual paper filters. Paper filters are OK, however there are some that can release dyes, chlorine and bleach and any of these will effect coffee taste. If you prefer using paper coffee filters then it's best to use the brown (unbleached) paper coffee filters since they are a more natural product.
Coffee Tip #3 - Use Fresh Quality Coffee
Quality coffee costs more but will consistently produce much better tasting coffee. Coffee beans are the best choice over pre ground coffee. Coffee begins to degrade shortly after it's roasted, this is regardless if the coffee is packaged immediately. Surface area is a large part of the degradation, so ground coffee degrades considerably faster than whole-bean coffee because of the considerably larger surface area of all those individual pieces of coffee beans. You might think it's an inconvenience using coffee beans compared to using ground coffee, but once you taste the delicious difference you'll never go back to ground coffee again! If you still want to use ground coffee, make sure you use a good, drip grind coffee.
Use 2 level tablespoons of quality coffee for each six ounces of water. This can be adjusted for individual taste preference depending on whether you like your coffee weak, average or bug out your eyes strong. Make sure and spread the grounds evenly in the coffee filter so that full brewing is achieved
Drink your fresh coffee right away for the best flavor. Coffee will break down quickly if left on a heat source and coffee should never be reheated or micro waved since both of these break down the coffee flavor. If you want to keep your coffee hot without effecting the flavor very much, it's best to use either an air pot or a stainless steel thermos. Both of these methods will keep your coffee hot for about an hour or so.
If you follow these 3 simple coffee preparation tips, you're sure to make a perfect cup of coffee for yourself, your friends of your family each and every time.
times, coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years
ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia (modern-day
Yemen), where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At
first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries.
This beverage was known as Qishr (Kisher in modern usage) and was used
during religious ceremonies. Coffee became the substitute beverage in
spiritual practice in place of wine where wine was forbidden.
Coffee drinking was briefly prohibited to Muslims as haraam in the early years of the 16th century, but this was quickly overturned. Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee's being put on trial in Mecca, accused of being a heretic substance, much as wine was, and its production and consumption was briefly repressed. It was later prohibited in Ottoman Turkey under an edict by the Sultan Murad IV. Later, regarded as a Muslim drink, it was prohibited to Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1900. Today, coffee is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to its banning in England, among other places.
A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a religion with about 12.5 million followers worldwide, which calls for complete coffee abstinence. The Church of Latter-Day Saints claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. This comes from the Mormon doctrine of health, given in 1833 by Mormon founder Joseph Smith, in a revelation called the Word of Wisdom. It does not identify coffee by name, but includes the statement that "hot drinks are not for the belly", a statement which was later applied to coffee or tea.
scientific studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption
and a wide array of medical conditions. Most studies are contradictory as to
whether coffee has any specific health benefits, and results are similarly
conflicting with respect to negative effects of coffee consumption. Studies
have suggested that the consumption of coffee is beneficial to health in
some ways. Coffee appears to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease,
Parkinson's disease, heart disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, cirrhosis of
the liver, and gout. Some health effects are due to the caffeine content of
coffee, as the benefits are only observed in those who drink caffeinated
coffee, while others appear to be due to other components. Coffee contains
antioxidants, which prevent free radicals from causing cell damage.
Coffee has negative health effects associated with it, most of them due to its caffeine content. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. Excess coffee consumption may lead to a magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia.
majority of all caffeine consumed worldwide comes from coffee—in some
countries, this figure is as high as 85%. Depending on the type of
coffee and method of preparation, the caffeine content of a single serving
can vary greatly. On average, the following amounts of caffeine can be
expected in a single cup of coffee—about 207 milliliters (7 fluid ounces)—or
single shot of espresso—about 44–59 mL (1.5–2 fl oz):
Drip coffee: 115–175 mg
Espresso: 100 mg
Brewed: 80–135 mg
Instant: 65–100 mg
Decaf, brewed: 3–4 mg
Decaf, instant: 2–3 mg
Marvelous Maleah Coffee Recipe
Delicious maple syrup & whipped cream, a beautiful
Heavy on the maple syrup for this cream and coffee drink. Fresh local maple syrup at the beginning of spring is better than your regular supermarket syrup.
2 cups hot coffee
1/4 cup maple syrup
1/2 cup half & half
Chocolate whipped cream
1/2 tsp vanilla
1 cup vanilla ice cream
Heat the milk and syrup together in a saucepan, but do not let it boil. Stir in the coffee. Serve topped with whipped cream. To ice this one up, cool your coffee in the fridge, add 6 ice cubes and 1 cup of vanilla ice cream, blend well, top with chocolate whipped cream and chocolate sprinkles. Serves 3
Cafe Falyn Girl Coffee Recipe
Enough honey to make it delicious, always a sweet
Honey has a wonderful flavor, as well as adding some natural sweetness to your cup of coffee. It doesn't take much to change the whole feeling of your cup.
2 cups hot coffee
1/2 cup milk
4 tbs honey
1/8 tsp cinnamon
Heat everything until warm, but not boiling. Stir well to dissolve the honey, and serve. Serves 3-4
Whitney Babe Coffee Recipe -
Wild wonderful blend of happiness and creativity. Live
This quick recipe has all the ingredients coming together before you actually brew your coffee. How convenient. The anise and orange add a noticeable tropical flavor to your coffee.
3 tbs coarse ground coffee
2 tsp sugar
1 tsp cinnamon
1 tsp cocoa
1 tsp anise seed
pinch of dried orange peel
Combine ingredients, and brew by your favorite method. Using a French press is traditional for this coffee recipe.
Cafe De Dude Coffee Recipe -
Spoil yourself, a sweet coffee drink, made with
chocolate and attitude.
Unique with chocolate and cloves. Preparation is a bit unusual. You steep the coffee grounds with the other ingredients instead of traditional brewing.
8 cups water
4 oz ground coffee
4 oz brown sugar
2 cinnamon sticks
3 cloves, whole
1 square of semi-sweet chocolate
Boil water in a saucepan, then add cinnamon, cloves, sugar and chocolate. When the mixture comes to a boil, skim off foam. Reduce the heat to a simmer, then add coffee. Steep for 5 minutes then serve.
Jackie's Orange Twist Coffee Recipe
- The kick
of orange, some whipped cream - really hot stuff.
An interesting blend of citrus, cream and brown sugar. Really something special to enjoy on a cold morning while hanging out in your slippers and surfing our Coffee Fair web site. :-)
1 pint water
2 tbs instant coffee
1 tbs brown sugar
2 tbs orange juice
Make your instant coffee then add your brown sugar and orange juice. Decorate with whipped cream, a thin slice or orange and maybe even a bit of orange rind for a nice touch.
Jessica Le Flower Coffee Recipe
Happy and focused instant coffee with a touch of sweet
If you're new to brewing up your own custom coffee drinks, this is a simple recipe to start with which has a nice touch of brown sugar for that down to earth taste along with a sprinkling of vanilla.
2 tbs instant coffee
2 tbs brown sugar
1 tbs vanilla extract
1 tsp water
1 1/2 cup boiling water
Split coffee and vanilla between 2 mugs. Dissolve the sugar in 1 tsp water, and heat in a saucepan to boiling. Mix in the larger portion of hot water, then pour into the two mugs. Stir well and serve. Serves 2
Misae's Japanese Dance Coffee Recipe
seeds and sweet honey - a very exotic taste.
Sesame seeds are an unusual addition to this simple coffee recipe. They give a nice nutty taste. Make sure you strain them out carefully. You don't want to be picking seeds out of your teeth.
2 cups hot coffee
1 1/2 tbs honey
1 1/2 tbs sugar
1 1/2 tbs sesame seeds
Heat ingredients together until honey and sugar are dissolved. Simmer for another 2 minutes. Strain out the seeds and serve into demitasse cups. Serves 4
Here are many more delicious Coffee Recipes similar to the above!
Other Interesting Coffee Facts [top]
- Germany is the world's second largest consumer of coffee in terms of volume at 16 pounds per person.
- Over 53 countries grow coffee worldwide, but all of them lie along the equator between the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn.
- An acre of coffee trees can produce up to 10,000 pounds of coffee cherries. That amounts to approximately 2,000 pounds of beans after hulling or milling.
- The percolator was invented in 1827 by a French man. It would boil the coffee producing a bitter tasting brew. Today most people use the drip or filtered method to brew their coffee.
- With the exception of Hawaii and Puerto Rico, no coffee is grown in the United States or its territories.
- Up until the 1870's most coffee was roasted at home in a frying pan over a charcoal fire. -It wasn't until recent times that batch roasting became popular.
- Each year some 7 million tons of green beans are produced world wide. Most of which is hand picked.
- Major per-capita consumers of coffee are Canada, the United States, Germany, Austria, Italy, and the Nordic countries.
- 27% of U.S. coffee drinkers and 43% of German drinkers add a sweetener to their coffee.
- The world's largest coffee producer is Brazil with over 3,970 million coffee trees. Colombia comes in second with around two thirds of Brazil's production.
- Hard bean means the coffee was grown at an altitude above 5000 feet.
- Arabica and Robusta trees can produce crops for 20 to 30 years under proper conditions and care.
- Most coffee is transported by ships. Currently there are approximately 2,200 ships involved in transporting the beans each year.
- The popular trend towards flavored coffees originated in the United States during the 1970's.
- October 1st is the official Coffee Day in Japan.
Coffee Tasting Terminology [top]
- Acidic: Very desirable coffee quality, sharpness detected towards front of mouth; denotes quality and altitudel can be fruity (citrusy, lemony, berry-like. etc) or a pure tongue-tip numbing sensation.
- Bitter: Basic flavor sensation detected at the back of the mouth and soft-palate, often as after-taste, sometimes desirable to a limited degree (as in dark-roast, espresso). Not to be confused with acidity.
- Fruity: Flavor / aroma often found in good arabica coffees, reminiscent of a wide range of fruits: citrus, berries, currants, etc, always accompanied by some degree of acidity; this is usually positive, but can indicate over ripeness or over-fermentation.
- Clean: Pure coffee flavor, no twists or changes in the mouth, no different after-taste (Costa Rica sometimes provides good examples).
- Dry: A certain type of acidity and / or mouth feel, but not, as in wine, the opposite of sweet; often accompanies light, or even delicate coffees, such as Mexican, Ethiopian and Yemeni.
- Earthy: Aroma / flavor reminiscent of damp black earth, organic, mushroomy, cellar-like
- Neutral: Bland coffee, very low acidity, not derogatory, as implies no off-tastes; good for blending (often describes many ordinary Brazilian arabicas).
- Rancid / Rotten: The flavor of a spoiled oily product, as in rancid nuts or rancid olive oil; fairly disgusting; can cause involuntary gagging.
- I hope you had fun here at coffee facts and learned much. Learn more about me and coffee facts at my Online Business and Webmaster Interview!